Information related to Plum Farming
Jujube is a popular Indian fruit, which is grown on a large scale in China apart from India. Its plant is thorny, and the length of the plant can vary depending on the variety. The ripe plum is used for direct eating. Apart from eating, soft drinks and candy are also prepared from the fruit of the jujube. Jujube fruit contains minerals like magnesium, zinc, vitamins A, C, and calcium.
In India, plum is cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and Maharashtra. Plum is cultivated in dry climate, due to which it requires less rainfall. There is less cost and more profit in jujube cultivation. here you How to Cultivate Plum and Information about Cultivation of Apple Plum – Cost, Rate and Profit information is being given.
how apple is cultivated
Where to cultivate berrySay Berry Cultivation)
Plum cultivation can be done anywhere, you can grow its plant in both fertile and barren land. But the land should not be waterlogged. Because the plum plants get spoiled in the moisture that remains for a long time. If you are going to grow the plum commercially, then for that, cultivate the plum in sandy loam soil with PH value of 5.5 to 8.
Plum cultivation is suitable for semi-arid and arid regions. It can be easily cultivated at an altitude of about 1000 meters above sea level. Winter season is not suitable for ber cultivation. Because in winter its plant loses its production capacity. Summer and rainy season are suitable for the cultivation of plum. Initially 20 to 22 degree temperature is suitable for plum plants. 25 to 35 degree is appropriate for plant growth, and its plant can tolerate maximum temperature of 45 degree only.
Improved varieties of plum (Plum Improved Varieties)
- Circle :- This plum variety produces round shaped shiny fruits. Its fully ripe fruit becomes golden yellow in color. This variety is known for giving high yield in less time. The quantity of pulp in this variety of berry is high and the juice is sweet. One tree gives an annual yield of 80 KG.
- Thai RJ :- It is a hybrid variety of ber, which takes more time to produce. It is also called by the name of apple berry. This variety matures after 6 months of transplanting. One tree gives an annual production of 100 KG, and if taken care of properly, it can bear fruit twice a year. The specialty of this type of tree is that its tree is not cut.
- black blonde :- This variety is grown to get early yield. The fruit coming on its tree is long in size. Its fruit contains 95% pulp. The berry fruit of this variety turns yellow when ripe, which has a mild sour taste. Its one tree gives a yield of about 80 KG in a year.
- ZG 2 :- This variety of plum has been prepared for higher yield. The fruits that come out in it are oval in shape and small, which remain green even after fully ripening. Its fruit is sweet in taste, on whose plants there is no disease called fungus. A tree of this variety gives a yield of 150 KG.
- Sanour 2 :- The fruit of this variety of berry is very sweet in taste and large in size. This variety is mostly grown in Punjab. Whose fully grown plant gives an annual production of 100 to 150 KG.
- Banarasi Kadaka :- This is a very famous variety of berry, which is known to give production in the middle period. The fruit that comes on its trees is sweet in taste. One plant of this gives a production of 125 KG berry in a year.
- Kaithly :- This variety of plum is grown the most in Punjab and Haryana. The plum tree of this variety is of normal size. Whose production per plant is between 50 to 100 KG. The berry that comes out in this is yellow in color and oval in shape when ripe. The fruit of this variety is ready by the end of March, in which fungal diseases do not appear.
- Umran :- This variety has been prepared in Alwar district of Rajasthan. This variety of ber is known to give very high yield, whose annual production is between 150 to 200 KG. The fruits of this variety do not spoil for a long time even after harvesting. The fruit that comes out in this is golden yellow and the ripe plum becomes chocolatey in color.
Apart from these, there are many varieties of plum, which are grown in different places for early and late production. This includes Sonor-2, Mahroom, Dodhia, Banarasi, Kotho, Mudaya Mahresh, Pound, Aliganj, Nagpuri, Thornaless, Narma, Paivandi and Pheda varieties.
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Preparation of plum field (Plum Field Preparation)
Once the plum plant is planted, it gives yield for 50 to 60 years. Therefore, before planting its plant in the field, the field should be prepared in the best way. Plum plants are planted in the pits prepared in the field. To make these pits in the field, deep plowing is done in the field with soil turning plows or Palau. After plowing, leave the land like this for some time. So that the sun’s sunlight penetrates deep into the soil and the harmful elements are destroyed.
After this, rotavator is used to break the earthen lumps present in the field. After which the soil becomes friable, and then leveling the field with a pat, so that the field does not get waterlogged during the rainy season.
After this, prepare two feet wide and one foot deep pits in the field at a distance of 4 to 5 meters. Make all these pits in a row, and the distance between row to row should be 3 to 4 meters.
After preparing the pits, mix organic fertilizers and chemical fertilizers in the soil and fill the pits again. After filling the pits, give deep irrigation. In this way, the nutrients of the fertilizer mix well in the soil filled in the pit. The pits should be prepared one month before the planting of plum plants.
You can also prepare the plum plant through seeds and cuttings. Plants prepared by seed start giving yield late. Because of which it is more suitable to prepare the plants by cutting. To plant the pen, keep the pen in polythene. After this, when the plant is ready, plant it in the prepared pits in the field. Today, there are many such nurseries, which keep advanced varieties of plants, from there you can also buy these plants. This saves both the labor and time of the farmer. Buy only those plants from the nursery which are growing properly and do not have any kind of disease.
Method of transplanting plum seedlings (Plum Planting Seedlings Method)
Planting of plum plants is done by preparing the seedlings by cutting. Before planting the plum sapling, clean the pits. After cleaning, prepare a small pit in the middle of the pit. After this, use cow urine or Bavistin to treat these pits. If there is a problem of termites in the field, then before planting the plants, treat the pits with neem cake or linden powder. After this, take out the plants from the polythene and plant them in the pits. Now press the plant with light soil around it.
For planting seedlings in a commercial way, it can be planted in two types of seasons in the year. In the first time, they can be planted in the summer season from the beginning of February to the end of March, and in the second time the plants have to be planted after the rains in the month of August to September. Plants can be planted in any season except the cold season for transplanting in a simple way.
Irrigation of plum plants (Plum Plants Irrigation)
Plum plants do not require special irrigation. But in the beginning water has to be given for plant growth. During this, plum plants should be watered immediately after sowing. After this, when the plant is ready to grow, water it once a week in the summer season, and once a month in the winter. Water is given when needed in the rain. When the flowers start blooming on the berry plants, then do not give water at all, and during the formation of fruit from flower, give moisture suitable water.
Weed control in plum cropPlum Crop Weed Control)
Both natural and chemical methods can be used for weed control in plum crop. But the natural way is much better. The first hoeing of the field should be done after 3 months of sowing the seedlings in natural way. After this, whenever you see a fruit in the plum field, remove it. Fully matured plum plants require only 2 hoeing in a year.
Diseases and prevention of plum plantsPlum Plants Diseases and Prevention)
|Disease||type of disease||remedy|
|fruit fly||insect borne diseases||Spray the jujube plants by making a solution of appropriate amount of rogar medicine or metacistrox.|
|bark caterpillar||insect borne diseases||Spray the solution of Metacid or Monocrotophos on the stems of the plant, and apply a paste of clay.|
|powdery mildew||fungal diseases||Spray Kerthane on jujube plants.|
|leaf spot disease||mold||Treat plum plants with copper oxychloride fungicide.|
|fruit rot||rot||Spray blightox on plants.|
|lac insect||insect||To prevent this disease, use rogar medicine.|
plucking of jujube fruits (Jujube Fruit Plucking
In North India, the fruits of plum are harvested in the summer month of April, and in South India the plum is plucked in the winter season. Plum fruits have to be harvested 3 to 4 times, because its fruits are not ready by ripening together. Plum is harvested according to size and color. You can also pluck under ripe plums. After plucking the plums, wash them with water and clean them and then send them to sell in the market. Jujube fruits can be stored for some time at normal temperature.
Plum yields and benefits (Plum Yields and Benefits)
The plum plant starts giving fruit about 3 years after sowing. Its fully grown plant gives production of 100 KG fruit. The price of plum in the market is Rs 30 per kg. Accordingly, 3 thousand rupees can be easily earned from one tree. About 1,000 berry plants can be planted in one hectare of field. In this way, one can earn a hefty amount of 30 lakh rupees by planting plum plants in one hectare field.
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