Information related to Jute Farming
Jute is cultivated commercially as a cash crop. Its plant is dicot, fibrous, in which thin and cylindrical stem emerges. It is also known as Jute. The jute plant is 6 to 10 feet tall, and the fiber is prepared by rotting the plant. Many things are made from this fiber. It also makes sackcloth, sacks, rugs, ropes, tents, tarpaulins, paper and quality clothes, from which people get cash money. Jute plant is of humid and hot climate. Because of which its cultivation needs moist air. Good quality fiber is found when there is moisture in the air. In India, jute is cultivated in Orissa, Bengal, Assam, Bihar and some Terai regions of Uttar Pradesh.
About 67% of the jute production is consumed in India. Out of which 7 percent remains with the farmers, and the remaining jute is exported to Italy, USA, UK, France, Belgium and Germany. Efforts are being made to grow jute in Egypt, Africa, Brazil and America, but no one could stand in front of India. If you also want to do jute farming, then in this article How is jute farming done and information about jute cultivation – Special information is being given about the rainfall, characteristics.
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Land suitable for cultivation of jute (Jute Cultivation Land Suitable)
Jute is cultivated in light sandy loam soil, and it should not be cultivated in waterlogged land. Because if the water remains for a long time, the plants start dying. The land for cultivation should be of normal pH value. Jute plant is of humid and hot climate. Because of which its plants need normal rain. But abnormal rainfall is detrimental to the yield. Jute is grown in summer and rainy season, due to which the effect of winter is not seen on the crop. Jute plant germinates at 20 to 25 degree temperature, and after germination it can tolerate temperature up to 35 degree.
Improved varieties of jute (Jute Improved Varieties)
At present, many improved varieties of jute are being grown. Which are divided into two species. The yield of which is dependent on harvesting, sowing and maintenance.
capsularis species (Capsularis Species)
This species of jute is also known as white jute. Which is mostly grown in low land.
- J.R.C. – 321 :- This type of jute gets cooked in less time. Whose production per hectare is 10 to 15 mana. 20% moisture is found in its fiber. Its plant becomes ready for harvesting after 5 months.
- UPC – 94 :- It is also known as Reshma type. Its plant is ready for harvesting after 120 to 140 days, and the lower part of the plant gives more yield. This variety gives 12 mana yield per hectare of field.
- JRC – 212 :- This variety is grown in medium and high land. This variety is ready for harvesting in 5 months. Which gives 10 mana production per hectare of field. Good yield and earnings can be earned by planting its plants in the month of March.
- NDC , This variety is mostly grown in low land, as well as it is grown all over India. This variety can be sown from the middle of February to March, which yields 12 to 15 mana.
Olitorius species (Olitorius Species)
It is also called Dev and Tosa jute species. In this species, the jute leaves coming out on the plants are of sweet taste.
- J.R.O. – 632 :- This variety is grown in high ground, which matures late. Its seeds are sown from April to mid-May. If you grow its crop well, then you will get 22 mana production per hectare of field. This variety produces high quality fibres, which are more than 10 feet in length.
- J.R.O. – 66 :- It is also grown in high ground, whose plant is 10 to 12 feet high. One hectare of field yields 20 minds. If the crop is properly looked after, then up to 30 mand of yield can be obtained. This variety is ready for harvesting in 100 days.
- J.R.O. – 878 :- This type of jute can be grown in any type of land. Its plant is ready for harvesting in about 130 days. Its production is 15 to 20 man per hectare. Its plant is resistant to premature flowering, due to which the quality of fiber is very good.
Jute field preparationJute Cultivation Preparation)
Before cultivating jute, its land must be properly prepared. The better the field is prepared, the better the yield will be. While preparing the land, do deep plowing with plows and leave the field open like this. Due to this, the sunlight gets deep in the ground. After this, apply cow dung and apply cultivator and do two to three slant plowing. This way the compost will mix well in the soil, and then apply water. After a few days of watering, when weeds start coming out, then get plowing done by using rotavator. This will make the soil moist and friable. The ability of seed germination increases in moist soil, and the seed grows well.
Time and method of transplanting jute seeds (Jute Seeds Transplanting Method and Time)
Planting of jute seeds is done in the form of seeds by spraying and drill method like wheat and millet. In the spraying method, the seeds are mixed in the soil by sprinkling them in the plowing flat field, after light plowing. Apart from this, seeds are planted in rows for transplanting through drill. During this, the seeds are planted at a distance of 5 to 7 CM from row to row. During this, 4 to 5 KG seeds are applied in one hectare field, and 6 to 7 KG seeds are used in the spraying method.
Planting of jute seeds can be done from February to June and mid-July depending on the variety and environment. By sowing the seeds at the right time, good yield can be obtained. Before sowing the jute seeds in the field, the seeds must be purified, so that the crop does not get disease. For this, treat them with Thiram or Carbendazim.
Fertilizer amount (Fertilizer Amount)
In order to get more yield from the jute crop, proper fertilizer has to be given in the field. For this, at the time of first plowing of the field, 25 to 30 tonnes of rotted cow dung is mixed well in the soil. Farmers can use organic fertilizers as well as chemical fertilizers. For this, at the time of last tillage, give 90 KG of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potash in the ratio of 2:1:1 in the field per hectare. Apart from this, with irrigation, give half the amount of nitrogen in two times.
rain in jute cultivation (Jute Cultivation Rain)
Jute plants require very little water. Because its seeds are planted at the time when it is the rainy season all over India. The months of March to June are the season of rain and monsoon. But if it does not rain on time, then water must be applied to maintain moisture in the field.
jute weed controlJute Weed Control
Its crop also has to be protected from weeds. To control weeds in jute crop, weeding has to be done. The first weeding of its plants should be done after 25 to 30 days of sowing, when the plant becomes about one foot. After this, do the hoeing at an interval of 15 to 20 days. Apart from this, the appropriate amount of Pendimethylene or Fluchloralene has to be sprayed on the plants in chemical way.
Diseases and treatment of jute plantsJute Plants Diseases and Treatment)
- Root and stem rot This type of disease occurs when there is waterlogging in the field. When affected by this disease, the leaves of the plant become yellow and dry, and within a few days the plant starts drying up and getting destroyed. To avoid this disease, seeds have to be treated with cow urine or Trichoderma and planted in the field. But when the disease appears on the plants, then spray Trichoderma viridi on their roots.
- Listronotas Boniarensis Kit :- This is an insect disease, whose attack is often seen on jute plants. This insect disease destroys the soft branch located on the upper part of the leaves of the plants. After which the growth of the plant stops completely. To prevent this disease, spray neem water or oil on the plants every month. Apart from this, if the disease outbreak is seen on the plants in the beginning, spray Dicophal.
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Pruning of Jute PlantsJute Plants Pruning)
Timely harvesting of jute plants is essential. If you harvest the plants earlier or later, you may see a decrease in the quality of the jute. This can have an effect on the yield. If you harvest the jute ahead of time, you will get shorter jute fibers, and late harvesting makes the fiber weak and thick. Some people do not harvest jute and uproot them directly from the root.
Apart from this, we also prune the jute plants harvested at the appropriate time. At the time of pruning, separate plants of equal length and prepare bundles. In this way a bundle of plants of equal length is formed. These bundles are left in the field to dry till the leaves. When the bundles are dry, the leaves are shredded.
Removal of fibers from jute plantsJute Plants Fiber Removal)
To extract the fiber from the jute plants, the bundles have to be kept in water for 20 to 25 days. After this, they are taken out, and the fiber is removed from the rotten plants, which are cleaned by washing them with clean water. To dry these clean fibers, keep them in the open sun on a wood for three to four days. During this, the fibers kept in the sun should be kept turning. So that the moisture content in the fiber is very less. Because excess moisture spoils the fibers.
After this, these dried fibers are stored by making bundles. Because the stretched fiber becomes weak for a long time, and the quality also decreases. Because of which the prices are also not good in the market.
Yield and benefits of jute (Jute Production and Benefits)
It takes 120 to 150 days for the jute plants to mature. During this, 30 to 35 minds can be obtained from the field per hectare by taking proper care of the plants, so that farmers can earn about 60 to 80 thousand rupees from its one-time crop.
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